Introduction: Despite years of efforts towards peace and stability, Sudan continues to be plagued by violence and internal displacement. Two years after the Sudanese revolution, hundreds of thousands of people are still displaced as violence in Darfur persists . This report aims to provide an overview of the ongoing conflict in Sudan and the resulting humanitarian crisis.
Background: The Sudanese pro-democracy movement proved its resilience and persistence in 2018-19, with widespread anger at the prospect of continued military dominance . However, the situation remains volatile, and a coup in 2021 further jeopardized the country’s economic recovery, financial viability, and much-needed relief assistance [19, 20].
Humanitarian Crisis: In South Sudan, 6.8 million people urgently need life-saving aid due to armed conflict, localized violence, flooding, worsening food insecurity, and economic destabilization . Despite these pressing needs, the government has imposed restrictions on humanitarian access, further exacerbating the crisis .
Peace and Security: South Sudan has experienced some progress on peace since the February 2020 agreement, but violence continues at the local level in more than 75% of the country and threatens to spiral out of control in several regions . The UN Special Representative to South Sudan has emphasized that much remains to be done to secure a peaceful and prosperous future .
Violence Against Civilians: The UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) reported a 42% decrease in incidents of violence against civilians in 2021 compared to the previous year . However, a separate report by the UN Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan highlights the widespread sexual violence against women and girls, perpetrated by all armed groups across the country, with government and military leaders responsible for these acts .
Environmental Impact: At the request of the Government of National Unity and the Government of Southern Sudan, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) conducted a comprehensive assessment of Sudan’s environment to address key environmental problems in the country . Climate change has further intensified the humanitarian crisis, prompting the UNEP to urge the international community to prioritize climate adaptation .